Analysis of Pollen as a Functional Food

The Application of Pollen as a Functional Food and Feed Ingredient—The Present and Perspectives

Authors: Aleksandar Ž. Kostić, D. D. Milinčić, M. B. Barać, M. A. Shariati, Ž. Lj. Tešić, M. B. Pešić (2020)

Pine pollen has long been recognized as a valuable dietary supplement for both humans and animals, known for its rich nutrient profile and bioactive compounds. This study, published in "Biomolecules," explores the diverse applications of pine pollen as a functional food and feed ingredient. It provides an in-depth review of recent advancements and future perspectives in utilizing pine pollen, highlighting its nutritional benefits, functional properties, and potential health impacts.


To explore the potential of pine pollen as a functional food and feed ingredient, evaluating its nutritional composition, functional properties, and health benefits.


Nutritional Composition and Benefits

  • The study details the high content of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins (particularly B vitamins), carotenoids, minerals, and polyphenols in pine pollen.
  • Emphasis is placed on the nutrient bioavailability challenges posed by pine pollen's hard outer shell and the processing techniques used to enhance nutrient accessibility.

Functional Properties and Health Benefits

  • The study examines the significant biological activities of pine pollen's natural metabolites, including antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-carcinogenic, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects.
  • Potential therapeutic treatments for non-allergic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic prostatitis, are also discussed.

Application in Functional Foods

  • Pine pollen is incorporated into various food products, including granules, capsules, tablets, pellets, and powders, aiming to improve nutritional, functional, and sensory properties.
  • Studies demonstrate enhanced antioxidant capacity, improved textural properties, and increased nutritional value in pine pollen-enriched products like yogurt, bread, and meat.

Anti-Nutritional Compounds and Safety Concerns

  • The presence of anti-nutritional compounds, such as allergens, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and mycotoxins, is addressed.
  • Proper handling, processing, and quality control measures are emphasized to ensure safety and efficacy.

Recent Advances in Pine Pollen-Based Products

  • The study highlights innovative pollen-based products developed through fermentation, encapsulation, and other processing techniques.
  • Fermentation is noted for enhancing the bioavailability of pollen's bioactive compounds and improving sensory characteristics.


Nutritional Composition of Pine Pollen

  • Carbohydrates: High content providing energy.
  • Proteins: Essential amino acids supporting body functions.
  • Lipids: Including heart-healthy fats.
  • Vitamins: Rich in B vitamins, carotenoids, and vitamin E.
  • Minerals: Including calcium, magnesium, and zinc.
  • Polyphenols: Potent antioxidants.

Challenges in Nutrient Bioavailability

  • The hard outer shell of pine pollen decreases nutrient digestibility by over 50%.
  • Processing techniques like grinding and fermentation enhance nutrient accessibility.

Functional Properties and Health Benefits

  • Antioxidant Activity: Pine pollen exhibits significant antioxidant capacity, reducing oxidative stress.
  • Anti-inflammatory Effects: Helps reduce inflammation, beneficial for conditions like arthritis.
  • Immune Support: Enhances immune function, improving overall health.
  • Hepatoprotective Properties: Protects liver cells from damage.
  • Cardioprotective Effects: Supports heart health.

Application in Foods

  • Yogurt: Enhances antioxidant capacity and improves texture.
  • Bread: Increases nutritional value and provides functional benefits.
  • Meat Products: Acts as a natural preservative and enhances flavor.

Anti-Nutritional Compounds and Safety Concerns

  • Allergens: Potential allergens present in pollen can pose risks for sensitive individuals.
  • Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Mycotoxins: Proper handling and quality control are necessary to ensure safety.

Recent Advances in Pine Pollen-Based Products

  • Fermentation: Enhances bioavailability of bioactive compounds and improves sensory characteristics.
  • Encapsulation: Protects sensitive nutrients and allows controlled release in the body.
  • Functional Beverages: Incorporation into drinks for added health benefits.
  • Dairy and Meat Products: Enhances nutritional quality and extends shelf life.

Research Significance

As consumer interest in natural and functional foods grows, understanding the benefits and applications of pine pollen becomes increasingly important. This study underscores the potential of pine pollen as a multifunctional ingredient, highlighting its diverse health benefits and practical applications in both human and animal nutrition. Pine pollen’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-supporting properties make it a valuable addition to various food products, promoting overall health and well-being.


This comprehensive review demonstrates that pine pollen is a powerful functional food and feed ingredient. Its rich nutritional composition, coupled with significant bioactive properties, supports its use in enhancing human and animal health. By improving processing techniques and ensuring safety, pine pollen can be effectively incorporated into various dietary products. Future research should focus on clinical validation of these benefits and the development of innovative pine pollen-based products.


Kostić, A. Ž., Milinčić, D. D., Barać, M. B., Shariati, M. A., Tešić, Ž. Lj., & Pešić, M. B. (2020). The Application of Pollen as a Functional Food and Feed Ingredient—The Present and Perspectives. Biomolecules, 10(1), 84.