The Anti-Fatigue Function of Pine Pollen

Paper Title: Anti-fatigue Function of Pine Pollen. Liu Xie (2004) Chinese Journal of Biochemical Pharmaceutics, CDC, Jiangsu Province, China.


The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of Pine Pollen on the swimming time of mice; a standard method of measuring fatigue and stress in the laboratory.

Study Methodology and Design

The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of Pine Pollen on the swimming time of mice; a standard method of measuring fatigue and stress in the laboratory.

After two weeks of feeding, groups two and three received an injection of testosterone propionate (4 mg/kg) mixed with olive oil, while group one was injected with olive oil alone (1 mL/kg). Two weeks later, sample slices of the prostate were observed, and the sex hormones, trace elements, zinc, copper, and antioxidant enzymes were extracted from the blood serum, prostate, and liver.

The study results indicate that the group who consumed Pine Pollen exhibited significantly better prostate hyperplasia symptoms compared to the placebo group.

The study found that group three had lower testosterone levels than group two, but no significant difference from the control group. Additionally, the level of estradiol in the blood serum of rats in group three was the lowest. The experiment suggests that Pine Pollen consumption could alleviate BPH symptoms and regulate sex hormone balance as a preventive measure.


The results show that Pine Pollen had a significant effect on the swimming time of the weight-loaded mice (P<0.01) and reduced the post-exercise levels of blood lactic acid and urea nitrogen (P<0.05, P<0.01). Additionally, Pine Pollen was found to have a positive impact on the content of hepatic glycogen (P<0.01).

Impact on Loaded Swimming Time and Biochemical Criterion Post Swimming of Mice (n=8, ̄±s)

Group Dosage / (mg/kg) Swimming Time / Minutes Urea Nitrogen / (mmol/L) Blood Lactic Acid / (mg/gl) Hepatic Glycogen / (mg/100g)
Negative Control Group 0 16.12 ± 8.02 9.58 ± 0.86 85.04 ± 4.76 627.87 ±± 317.06
Pine Pollen Low Dosage Group 100 18.98 ± 10.45 9.73 ± 1.38 79.19 ± 6.23 935.34 ± 303.79
Pine Pollen Medium Dosage Group 500 29.00 ± 10.76 8.14 ± 1.07 76.47 ± 6.58 1,484.20 ± 339.43
Pine Pollen High Dosage Group 1,000 31.60 ± 10.20 7.87 ± 1.06 67.94 ± 6.39 2,018.19 ± 412.05

The Effects of Free Radicals, Muscle Damage, and Fatigue

Studies have shown that exercise can cause an increase in skeletal muscle free radicals and other reactive oxygen types, leading to skeletal muscle damage and fatigue.

Controlling Muscle Damage and Fatigue through Antioxidant Supplementation

Antioxidant supplements can help prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress and improve performance. Pine pollen is a good source of antioxidants, including vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, and flavonoids, which can help neutralize free radicals produced during exercise.

Selenium is particularly helpful in synthesizing glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), an enzyme family with peroxidase activity. The primary role of this enzyme is to protect the body from oxidative damage. Vitamin E and selenium work together to protect the body from damage caused by free radicals, reduce lipid peroxidation, and maintain the structure and function of skeletal muscle, the myocardium, and other organs.

Beta-carotene is considered the strongest oxygen scavenger and could reduce lipid peroxide reactions. Pine Pollen contains antioxidant ingredients, including beta-carotene and vitamin E, that can reduce free radicals after exercise, alleviating damage from them and slowing down post-exercise fatigue.

The Pine Pollen group of rats had a lower testosterone level compared to the placebo group of rats, and their serum estrogen level was also lower than the other two groups. These differences show that Pine Pollen can effectively control rats' serum testosterone level and adjust the serum estrogen level as well.

Conclusion and Significance

These tests support the anti-fatigue effect of Pine Pollen.